Herpes includes diseases that are caused by the simple herpes virus. These diseases are commonly characterized by the skin and mucous coats affection as well as eyes, nervous system and certain internal organs affection.
Etiology and pathogenesis. The causative agent relates to the herpes family and is divided into 6 antigenic groups. The most widespread is the 1 type of the virus. The second type of the virus commonly relates to the genital herpes as well as generalized newborns infection genesis. The entries of the infection are the skin and mucous coats. After the virus is incorporated into the human body it remains there for the rest of the lifetime as the latent infection that may turn to certain clinical forms due to certain causes that decrease organism immunity (like influenza and other diseases, immunosuppressive agent treatment, AIDS and etc).
The incubation period of this infection lasts from 2 to 12 days (commonly it occurs within 4 days). The primary infection commonly has subclinic forms and only 10-12% of all patients experience clinic forms of the disease. There are following clinic forms of the disease: 1. skin herpes affection (localized as well as diffuses ones); 2. mouth cavity herpes affection; 3. acute respiratory disease; 4. genital herpes; 5. eye herpes affection (surficial as well as deep one); 6. encephalitis and meningoencephalitis; 7. visceral forms (hepatitis, pneumonia); 8. generalized newborns herpes.
Localized skin herpes affections are the most common ones and they usually relate certain disease (acute respiratory infection, malaria, meningitis). There are commonly no general symptoms or they are disguised with the main disease form. Vesicles are localized within mouth, lips and nose. Sometimes diffused herpes rash occurs. The mouth cavity mucous coats affection commonly takes the form of the thrush. The herpes viruses cause 5-7% of all acute respiratory diseases and are quite similar to other etiologies of this disease from the clinic point of view. Genital herpes is the sexually transmitted disease and commonly reveals as the necrotic cervicitis, and vagina or edea herpetic affection. This herpes form contributes to the cancer of the cervix of the uterus development and is quite dangerous one for the human fetus in pregnant female (as it may lead to severe generalized newborn herpes). Herpetic eyes affection commonly reveals as the surficial and deep cornea affections. This disease may turn into long-lasting and recurrent one and may cause persistent cornea opacification. Herpetic encephalitis are quite severe ones and cause lethal result quite often. Visceral herpes forms are commonly appear due to strong immunosuppressive agents treatment. These forms may also take place in the AIDS patients and reveal in the form of the hepatitis, pneumonia and encephalitis. Generalized newborn herpes accompanies encephalitis, skin and internal organs affection. In case no antiviral treatment is used it may lead to the death of the patient. Herpes infection diagnosis is eased by the presence of the typical skin or mucous coats affection. To confirm the diagnosis the virus should be extracted from the various material (the vesicles contents, cornea scrapings, the spinal cord liquid, the material taken through the biopsy of the cervix of the uterus, and etc).
The main disease is commonly cured in case of the localized and not complicated forms of the herpes infections. And the rash elements are lubricated with 1% solution of the methylene blue or ethyl green. As soon as scab appears the tetracycline or erythromycin ointment is applied. To prevent the infection generalization the 6 milliliters of the normal human immunoglobulin is applied in the form of intramuscular injection. In case of the rash elements festering antibiotics are prescribed (erythromycin in 0.5 gram four times a day). You may also drip into your eyes a special solution as the measure of prophylaxis; this solution is also quite useful in herpes affection of the mucous coats. The leucocytal interferon is applied locally.
In case of the generalized herpes or herpetic encephalitis it is quite difficult to make a definite outlook. In case of eyes affection the disease may turn into long-lasting and recurrent one thus leading to the decrease of the capacity of the work.
A normal human immunoglobulin is injected as the measure of the infection generalization prophylaxis (6 milliliters every 3 weeks). And the killed vaccination extracted from the herpes virus is also quite effective to prevent recurrence. No treatment is applied in the hearth of the disease.