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Herpes infection. Symptoms and treatment

Herpes includes diseases that are caused by the simple herpes virus. These diseases are commonly characterized by the skin and mucous coats affection as well as eyes, nervous system and certain internal organs affection. 

Etiology and pathogenesis. The causative agent relates to the herpes family and is divided into 6 antigenic groups. The most widespread is the 1 type of the virus. The second type of the virus commonly relates to the genital herpes as well as generalized newborns infection genesis. The entries of the infection are the skin and mucous coats. After the virus is incorporated into the human body it remains there for the rest of the lifetime as the latent infection that may turn to certain clinical forms due to certain causes that decrease organism immunity (like influenza and other diseases, immunosuppressive agent treatment, AIDS and etc).


The incubation period of this infection lasts from 2 to 12 days (commonly it occurs within 4 days). The primary infection commonly has subclinic forms and only 10-12% of all patients experience clinic forms of the disease. There are following clinic forms of the disease: 1. skin herpes affection (localized as well as diffuses ones); 2. mouth cavity herpes affection; 3. acute respiratory disease; 4. genital herpes; 5. eye herpes affection (surficial as well as deep one); 6. encephalitis and meningoencephalitis; 7. visceral forms (hepatitis, pneumonia); 8. generalized newborns herpes.

Localized skin herpes affections are the most common ones and they usually relate certain disease (acute respiratory infection, malaria, meningitis). There are commonly no general symptoms or they are disguised with the main disease form. Vesicles are localized within mouth, lips and nose. Sometimes diffused herpes rash occurs. The mouth cavity mucous coats affection commonly takes the form of the thrush. The herpes viruses cause 5-7% of all acute respiratory diseases and are quite similar to other etiologies of this disease from the clinic point of view. Genital herpes is the sexually transmitted disease and commonly reveals as the necrotic cervicitis, and vagina or edea herpetic affection. This herpes form contributes to the cancer of the cervix of the uterus development and is quite dangerous one for the human fetus in pregnant female (as it may lead to severe generalized newborn herpes). Herpetic eyes affection commonly reveals as the surficial and deep cornea affections. This disease may turn into long-lasting and recurrent one and may cause persistent cornea opacification. Herpetic encephalitis are quite severe ones and cause lethal result quite often. Visceral herpes forms are commonly appear due to strong immunosuppressive agents treatment. These forms may also take place in the AIDS patients and reveal in the form of the hepatitis, pneumonia and encephalitis. Generalized newborn herpes accompanies encephalitis, skin and internal organs affection. In case no antiviral treatment is used it may lead to the death of the patient. Herpes infection diagnosis is eased by the presence of the typical skin or mucous coats affection. To confirm the diagnosis the virus should be extracted from the various material (the vesicles contents, cornea scrapings, the spinal cord liquid, the material taken through the biopsy of the cervix of the uterus, and etc).


The main disease is commonly cured in case of the localized and not complicated forms of the herpes infections. And the rash elements are lubricated with 1% solution of the methylene blue or ethyl green. As soon as scab appears the tetracycline or erythromycin ointment is applied. To prevent the infection generalization the 6 milliliters of the normal human immunoglobulin is applied in the form of intramuscular injection. In case of the rash elements festering antibiotics are prescribed (erythromycin in 0.5 gram four times a day). You may also drip into your eyes a special solution as the measure of prophylaxis; this solution is also quite useful in herpes affection of the mucous coats. The leucocytal interferon is applied locally.

In case of the generalized herpes or herpetic encephalitis it is quite difficult to make a definite outlook. In case of eyes affection the disease may turn into long-lasting and recurrent one thus leading to the decrease of the capacity of the work.

A normal human immunoglobulin is injected as the measure of the infection generalization prophylaxis (6 milliliters every 3 weeks). And the killed vaccination extracted from the herpes virus is also quite effective to prevent recurrence. No treatment is applied in the hearth of the disease.

8 Ways to Stop the Spread of Flu Germs

Unfortunately, you’ve caught the flu. Keep from spreading it to your friends and family by following these tips.

Flu season can last from October through May, usually peaking in January and February. The best way to avoid the flu is to get a flu vaccine. But if you or someone in your home is already sick, try to keep the virus from spreading to other family members.

Flu germs spread from person to person through coughing, sneezing, and by touching contaminated surfaces and objects. Here are some tips that may help you keep the illness at bay:

  1. Stay home. To get over the flu and to prevent spreading it to others, stay home from work or school while you have flu symptoms. These may include body aches, fever, stuffy or runny nose, cough, headache, tiredness, and sore throat, Sometimes vomiting and diarrhea occur, but this is seen more often in children.
  2. Wash your hands frequently for at least 20 seconds with soap and water. This is the most important step you can take to stop the spread of germs. Dry your hands with a disposable paper towel. Carry an alcohol-based hand gel, spray, or wipes when you are out in case soap and water aren’t available. Wash your hands as soon as possible:


  • Sneezing, coughing, or blowing your nose
  • Caring for a sick person
  • Using the bathroom
  • Changing a diaper
  • Touching an animal or its environment
  • Preparing food


  • Preparing food
  • Eating
  • Caring for a sick person
  1. Cover your mouth and nose with a clean tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue away as soon as you use it. If you don’t have a tissue, cover your nose and mouth with your upper sleeve or the crook of your elbow, not your hands.
  2. Keep your hands away from your mouth, nose, and eyes. These are the places where germs can enter your body.
  3. Don’t share eating utensils, drinking glasses, or bottles with anyone else.
  4. Disinfect surfaces and objects that are commonly used, such as kitchen countertops, doors, sink handles, light switches, and telephones. Harmful germs can live on surfaces for days, so it’s important you clean them often with a disinfectant. Don’t forget computer keyboards, phones, and TV remotes.
  5. Clean clothes and bedding that may be contaminated with flu germs. Don’t shake sheets when you take them off the bed. Wash your hands after you handle dirty laundry and before you take clean laundry out of the washer or dryer.
  6. Avoid close contact with household members. Keeping your distance from other people may reduce their risk of catching the flu from you.

How Is Gestational Diabetes Different From Other Types of Diabetes?

Gestational diabetes is diabetes that only occurs during pregnancy. Learn how it differs from type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

There are three main types of diabetes: type 1, type 2 and gestational (diabetes that occurs with pregnancy).

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes cannot be cured. Once you have diabetes, you have to treat it for life. But gestational diabetes often only lasts during pregnancy, and it typically goes away once the baby is born. But after you’ve had gestational diabetes, your chance of getting diabetes in future pregnancies – and type 2 diabetes later in life – goes up.

Diabetes 101
Diabetes occurs when there is not enough insulin, or the insulin doesn’t work right in your body. Insulin is a hormone that’s made by the pancreas. When we eat, our bodies break down food into glucose (sugar). Insulin is needed to move glucose from the blood into the cells for energy. When there is not enough insulin, or it doesn’t work properly, the glucose stays in the blood.

Types of diabetes
In type 1 diabetes,
the pancreas makes too little insulin because the body’s immune system destroys a special type of cell in the pancreas that produces insulin. In time, the cells stop making insulin entirely. People with type 1 diabetes need to watch what they eat, get exercise, monitor their blood sugar levels and take insulin shots to treat this condition.

In type 2 diabetes, the body is insulin-resistant. This means insulin is made by the pancreas, but the cells in the body can’t use it the right way. People with type 2 diabetes manage their diabetes by eating well, exercising and possibly taking medicine. They also must check their blood glucose levels.

In gestational diabetes, the body is unable to make or use all the insulin it needs to support the pregnancy. Pregnancy changes how insulin works in the body, which may lead to diabetes. Experts aren’t sure why gestational diabetes happens. Some research suggests the placenta (which works to nourish the growing baby) may block how insulin works in the mother’s body. Gestational diabetes is treated with a healthy diet, exercise, good prenatal care and sometimes insulin. Often, gestational diabetes goes away after the baby is born.

Not all pregnant women with diabetes have gestational diabetes. Women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes can get pregnant, but they will still have diabetes after the baby’s birth. If you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes and want to get pregnant, see your doctor. You will need to take special precautions and need close monitoring throughout pregnancy.

Watch that blood sugar
No matter what kind of diabetes you have, it’s important to follow your diabetes care plan exactly as prescribed by your doctor. This is key because high blood sugar levels can harm your health over time. That can possibly lead to conditions like heart disease, kidney failure and blindness. During pregnancy, high blood sugar is also linked with miscarriage, birth defects and pre-term labor and delivery. Gestational diabetes can lead to macrosomia (a very large baby), preeclampsia (pregnancy induced hypertension), a higher chance of needing a Cesarean section, and problems with the newborn. These can include breathing problems, very low blood sugar, jaundice and problems with calcium and magnesium balance.

Help for Caregivers: Geriatric Care Managers

Learn how a geriatric care manager can help you with the give and take of caring for an ill loved one.

Understanding and taking care of your elderly loved one’s needs can be a full-time job. And if those needs are complex or if you live a distance away, it can be very hard to do that job well. But before you throw up your hands in frustration, you may want to consider hiring a geriatric care manager.

What is a geriatric care manager?
Geriatric care managers are trained professionals. Many of them are licensed social workers or nurses who have extra training. Their job is to help older adults and their families identify and meet various needs. Depending upon their training and what services your family needs, geriatric care managers may:

  • Assess the situation
  • Identify needs and come up with solutions
  • Arrange for necessary care, including hiring home health workers and accessing medical and social services
  • Coordinate and monitor care for families who do not live close by
  • Help with or provide referrals for medical, legal and financial needs
  • Provide counseling and crisis intervention
  • Assist in moving an older person between home, retirement community, assisted living or other facilities

How do you find a geriatric care manager?
You can find a geriatric care manager through various sources. These include your local hospital or government senior citizen agency. You should make sure that a care manager is properly trained and licensed. One way to do this is to hire one certified by the National Association of Professional Geriatric Care Managers (NAPGCM). To be certified, a care manager must pass required tests and take part in continuing education.

As of January 1, 2008, NAPGCM requires a care manager to earn one of four certifications to be accepted in their membership:

  • Care Manager Certified
  • Certified Case Manager
  • Certified Social Worker Case Manager
  • Certified Advanced Social Worker Case Management

To find a certified geriatric case manager in your area, visit and click on „Find a Care Manager.“

When you interview a potential care manager, find out:

  • What services they offer
  • What fees they charge for each service
  • Whether they are licensed and/or certified
  • How communication will be handled
  • How their past clients felt about their services (ask for references)
  • If he or she is available for emergencies

The right geriatric care manager can improve the quality of life for both the older adult and family members. They can take a load of responsibility and worry off family members’ shoulders. They can also help an older adult live as well and as independently as possible.

Healthy Eating Tips for Busy Families

If your family’s evenings are jam-packed with activity, you may find there’s no time to eat – or only time for fast food. Try these convenient tips for eating healthy when you don’t have much of time.

Evening baseball games, piano lessons, homework, PTA meetings, soccer practice … the list goes on and on. Is your family’s nutrition suffering because of hectic schedules? Focus on some easy and convenient ways to improve your family’s nutrition so you won’t need to rely on fast food every night. Check out the suggestions below.

  1. Stock the pantry, fridge and freezer with healthy foods.Cupboard
    Brown rice (quick-cooking), barley
    Potatoes (white and sweet)
    Low-fat crackers
    Canned tuna and salmon
    Canned beans
    Lentils, dried peas
    Canned low-sodium soups
    Whole-grain breads, pitas, muffins
    Rice cakes
    Low-fat refried beans
    Olive oil, canola oil
    Cooking sprayRefrigerator
    Light cheese
    Parmesan cheese
    Low-fat cottage cheese
    Low-fat yogurt
    Skim or 1% milk
    Natural peanut butter
    Fruits and vegetables
    Mini carrots
    Trans-fat-free margarine
    Low-fat mayonnaise

    Frozen vegetables
    Chicken breast
    Lean hamburger
    Lean ground turkey
    Salmon burgers
    Veggie burgers
    Frozen fruit
    Frozen shrimp

  2. Use convenience foods mixed with fresh foods.
    • Saute onions, carrots and garlic in olive oil. Add a can of tomato soup and a can of garbanzo beans (chickpeas). Heat and serve.
    • Saute onions, mushrooms and zucchini. Mix with leftover brown rice or pasta. Add a can of stewed tomatoes.
    • Use frozen dinners as a base, and add to them. Beware of the sodium content. Serve with a large salad and a whole-grain roll to round out the meal.
  3. When you have time, prepare foods in advance.Use small amounts of leftovers for the next day’s meal. Be creative! Use leftover chicken in a salad for lunch. Put extra chili on a baked potato for dinner. Add extra pasta to soup or a casserole, or make it into a pasta salad with leftover veggies and bottled low-fat dressing.
  4. Try freezing the following:
    • Soup, stew or chili
    • Meatballs
    • Casseroles
    • Chili
    • Turkey
    • Meatloaf
    • Homemade muffins or quick breads
    • Pot of brown rice, lentils or barley
    • Lasagna

Enjoy fall’s bounty and reap the benefits of eating pumpkins and other winter squash.

Come fall, is there anything more beautiful than a farmer’s market filled with a rainbow of inviting fruits and veggies? Autumn’s bounty isn’t just a feast for the eyes, it’s also good for the body. Pumpkins and other winter squash are rich in fiber and full of healthy carotenoids. These nutrients have been linked to a reduced risk of certain cancers, heart disease and age-related eye problems. Pumpkin seeds, which taste great roasted, also pack a punch. They are a good source of zinc, iron, copper, protein and magnesium. Here are some sweet and savory ideas for showcasing squash.

Play with Pasta: Blend winter squash with ricotta cheese and a dash of nutmeg to create a flavorful filling for stuffed shells.

Add Savor to Soups: Mix up an easy and exotic soup with apples, pumpkin and a dash of curry.

Batter Up: Boost the nutritional value of breads, baked goods and puddings by adding canned pumpkin to the batter.

Top It: Create rustic homemade pizza with chunks of butternut squash, grated Parmesan and a sprinkling of sage.–Rap-Discussion/t46345-Fit-to-a-Tee-The-Basics/